The Element Titanium
Atomic Number: 22
Atomic Weight: 47.867
Melting Point: 1941 K (1668°C or 3034°F)
Boiling Point: 3560 K (3287°C or 5949°F)
Density: 4.5 grams per cubic centimeter
Phase at Room Temperature: Solid
Element Classification: Metal
Period Number: 4
Group Number: 4
Group Name: none
What's in a name? From the Greek word Titans, the mythological "first sons of the Earth."
Say what? Titanium is pronounced as tie-TAY-nee-em.
History and Uses:
Titanium was discovered in 1791 by the Reverend William Gregor, an English pastor. Pure titanium was first produced by Matthew A. Hunter, an American metallurgist, in 1910. Titanium is the ninth most abundant element in the earth's crust and is primarily found in the minerals rutile (TiO2), ilmenite (FeTiO3) and sphene (CaTiSiO5). Titanium makes up about 0.57% of the earth's crust.
Titanium is a strong, light metal. It is as strong as steel and twice as strong as aluminum, but is 45% lighter than steel and only 60% heavier than aluminum. Titanium is not easily corroded by sea water and is used in propeller shafts, rigging and other parts of boats that are exposed to sea water. Titanium and titanium alloys are used in airplanes, missiles and rockets where strength, low weight and resistance to high temperatures are important. Since titanium does not react within the human body, it is used to create artificial hips, pins for setting bones and for other biological implants. Unfortunately, the high cost of titanium has limited its widespread use.
Titanium oxide (TiO2) is used as a pigment to create white paint and accounts for the largest use of the element. Pure titanium oxide is relatively clear and is used to create titania, an artificial gemstone. Titanium tetrachloride (TiCl4), another titanium compound, has been used to make smoke screens.
A final bit of titanium trivia -- titanium is one of the few elements that will burn in an atmosphere of pure nitrogen.
Estimated Crustal Abundance: 5.65×103 milligrams per kilogram
Estimated Oceanic Abundance: 1×10-3 milligrams per liter
Number of Stable Isotopes: 5 (View all isotope data)
Ionization Energy: 6.828 eV
Oxidation States: +4, +3, +2
3s2 3p6 3d2